Pietre che uccidono, pietre che salvano Gv 10,31-42

In quel tempo, i Giudei raccolsero delle pietre per lapidare Gesù. Gesù disse loro: «Vi ho fatto vedere molte opere buone da parte del Padre; per quale di esse volete lapidarmi?». Gli risposero i Giudei: «Non ti lapidiamo per un’opera buona, ma per una bestemmia: perché tu, che sei uomo, ti fai Dio».

Disse loro Gesù: «Non è forse scritto nella vostra Legge: “Io ho detto: voi siete dèi”? Ora, se essa ha chiamato dèi coloro ai quali fu rivolta la parola di Dio – e la Scrittura non può essere annullata -, a colui che il Padre ha consacrato e mandato nel mondo voi dite: “Tu bestemmi”, perché ho detto: “Sono Figlio di Dio”? Se non compio le opere del Padre mio, non credetemi; ma se le compio, anche se non credete a me, credete alle opere, perché sappiate e conosciate che il Padre è in me, e io nel Padre». Allora cercarono nuovamente di catturarlo, ma egli sfuggì dalle loro mani.

Ritornò quindi nuovamente al di là del Giordano, nel luogo dove prima Giovanni battezzava, e qui rimase. Molti andarono da lui e dicevano: «Giovanni non ha compiuto nessun segno, ma tutto quello che Giovanni ha detto di costui era vero». E in quel luogo molti credettero in lui.

Gv 10,31-42

“Voi siete Elohim”, “siete dei”. È la parola del Salmo 82 che Dio rivolge agli uomini, in particolare ai giudici: perché chi giudica lo dovrebbe fare in nome di Dio, ma ancor più perché ogni volta che ci troviamo a giudicare altri finiamo per diventare come Dio. È la tentazione del Serpente, in fondo: “diventerete come Dio”, sarete voi i giudici, fisserete voi i confini del bene e del male: il vostro criterio, il vostro appagamento, la vostra misura sarà ciò intorno a cui ruota tutto il resto. “Ti fai Dio”, accusano Gesù…  ma son loro a impalcarsi a giudici, come dei.

Sta qui un prima differenza: Gesù si fa “figlio di Dio”. Il figlio si riconosce radicalmente debitore ad altri, al Padre, per ciò che è; loro sono dei, pretendendo di giudicare avendo saldamente in mano la legge, come una pietra con cui uccidere: la donna sorpresa in adulterio, il rabbi che parla di Dio come Abbà. Non c’è più bisogno di un Dio, ci sono loro ad amministrare il bene e il male. La tentazione di ogni religione e di ogni idea degenerata.  La “vostra legge”, precisa Gesù: non “nostra”, non “di Dio” né “di Mosè”. La “vostra legge”, quella di cui vi siete appropriati facendovi – voi sì – come Dio.

Ci aveva già provato Nicodemo, a ricondurre i dotti studiosi della legge al suo senso profondo: “la nostra Legge giudica forse un uomo prima di averlo ascoltato e di sapere ciò che fa?”, domandava. Gli rispondevano: “Studia e vedrai che non sorge profeta dalla Galilea” (Gv 7,51-52). Non serve studiarla, la legge di Dio, se il cuore è chiuso; anzi lo studio superbo conferma nella propria grettezza, sequestrando nella lettera della norma la libertà e la misericordia di cui il cuore dell’uomo è in ricerca.

E qui la seconda differenza: “credete alle opere”, dice Gesù. Sono opere di misericordia, quelle compiute da Dio con le mani di Gesù: l’uomo guarito benché di sabato – ancora una legge piegata a divieto… – nella piscina di Betzaetà, che significa Casa della Misericordia (Gv 5); la folla che Gesù sfama, guardandola con compassione dalla rupe su cui è salito (Gv 6); la parola rivolta al cuore dell’adultera, mentre la pietra sgretola in sabbia fine ogni pretesa di scolpire una colpa indelebile (Gv 8); la roccia in cui rifugiarsi del Salmo 17, che oggi fa da controcanto alle letture. Solida come pietra è la misericordia del Padre, una pietra che salva.

La storia è un cantiere mai chiuso. Negli anni ’90 l’artista tedesco Gunter Demnig inizia a collocare delle stolpersteine, pietre d’inciampo, lì dove ci furono ebrei deportati e uccisi dalla barbarie di leggi statuali. Abbiamo bisogno di calpestarne anche oggi, di pietre d’inciampo, affinché non assecondiamo quelle chiusure dei cuori che piegano una legge a cancellare la misericordia.

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