L’UOMO PRIMA DEL PRECETTO Mt 12, 1-8

In quel tempo, Gesù passò, in giorno di sabato, fra campi di grano e i suoi discepoli ebbero fame e cominciarono a cogliere delle spighe e a mangiarle.
Vedendo ciò, i farisei gli dissero: «Ecco, i tuoi discepoli stanno facendo quello che non è lecito fare di sabato».
Ma egli rispose loro: «Non avete letto quello che fece Davide, quando lui e i suoi compagni ebbero fame? Egli entrò nella casa di Dio e mangiarono i pani dell’offerta, che né a lui né ai suoi compagni era lecito mangiare, ma ai soli sacerdoti. O non avete letto nella Legge che nei giorni di sabato i sacerdoti nel tempio vìolano il sabato e tuttavia sono senza colpa? Ora io vi dico che qui vi è uno più grande del tempio. Se aveste compreso che cosa significhi: “Misericordia io voglio e non sacrifici”, non avreste condannato persone senza colpa. Perché il Figlio dell’uomo è signore del sabato».

Mt 12, 1-8

Il termine “Figlio dell’uomo” è l’appellativo che più compare nei Vangeli dopo il nome “Gesù”. E’ il modo privilegiato scelto da Gesù per parlare di sé. L’espressione delle lingue semitiche da cui deriva significa semplicemente “uomo”. E’ molto significativo: Gesù parla di sé in questi termini. Non c’è bisogno d’altro.

E’ pur vero che l’espressione riecheggia nei Vangeli anche la misteriosa figura del capitolo 7 del libro di Daniele. In quella visione il profeta vede succedere alla bestialità dei regni di questo mondo una società finalmente più umana che corrisponde all’intervento e all’intenzione originaria di Dio.

E’ un umanità dunque che ha il sapore della compiutezza, dell’“umano integrale” come avrebbe detto J. Maritain, quella che è al centro del presente brano evangelico.

Dunque l’“umano”, per essere pienamente tale, deve avere la precedenza rispetto al precetto religioso, anche a quello per eccellenza secondo la tradizione ebraica: il sabato. Gesù prospetta una maniera di intendere il rapporto con Dio in cui i bisogni e le necessità dell’uomo vengono prima di qualunque precetto divino, anzi sono il significato autentico del precetto divino stesso.

Infondo tale era propriamente il significato originario del riposo sabbatico: un tributo alla dignità e alla libertà dell’uomo. Una volta alla settimana all’uomo veniva ricordato: «Guarda, sei stato creato a immagine e somiglianza di Dio». Almeno una volta alla settimana si doveva ricordare che era “Figlio di Dio”.

E invece il sabato era stato trasformato in un giorno nel quale l’uomo era mortificato. Nel giorno di sabato non si poteva fare assolutamente nulla. C’è un intero trattato del Talmud che elenca tutte le proibizioni riguardanti il giorno di sabato: di sabato sono proibiti i 39 lavori che sono serviti, secondo la tradizione rabbinica, per la costruzione del tempio. Questi 39 lavori furono a loro volta suddivisi in altrettanti 39 lavori per un totale di 1.521 lavori proibiti da compiere il giorno di sabato. Il precetto era diventato tanto gravoso e ingombrate da occupare tutta la scena, schiacciando l’uomo.

Contro una tale pratica religiosa, formale e zelante, insorge Gesù ristabilendo le giuste proporzioni e fondando il criterio di giudizio per la validità della pratica religiosa stessa: se essa incrementa la dignità umana ed è a servizio delle necessità fondamentali dell’uomo essa è valida, altrimenti no. Gesù non disprezza la pratica religiosa che, stando ai Vangeli, non abbandona mai completamente durante il corso della propria vita, ma ne indica il senso e dunque i limiti.

Sembra qui di vedere perfettamente applicato uno dei diciotto principi di vita espressi dall’attuale Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso: “Impara le regole affinché tu possa infrangerle in modo appropriato”.

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