La distensione tra l’Italia e il Papa

L’11 febbraio 1929 a Roma il Cavaliere Benito Mussolini, Primo Ministro e Capo del Governo italiano, e Pietro Gasparri, Cardinale Segretario di Stato, firmano i Patti Lateranensi.

I Patti, che prendono il nome dal Palazzo di san Giovanni in Laterano in cui furono sottoscritti, stabilirono l’inizio delle relazioni diplomatiche tra il Regno d’Italia e la Santa Sede,sancirono il mutuo riconoscimento tra lo Stato italiano e il Vaticano e posero così fine alla questione romana, vale a dire a quel conflitto, durato decenni, che si era venuto a creare tra i papi e il neonato Stato unitario italiano in particolare a causa della presa di Roma da parte dei bersaglieri sabaudi i quali con la breccia di Porta Pia il 20 settembre 1870 posero fine allo Stato Pontificio.

I Patti erano formati da tre diversi documenti: il Trattato che dichiarava legittime l’indipendenza e la sovranità della Santa Sede a cui veniva attribuita un’entità statuale autonoma con la creazione dello Stato della Città del Vaticano; la Convenzione finanziaria che prevedeva un congruo risarcimento a beneficio della Chiesa; il Concordato attraverso il quale venivano definite in Italia le relazioni religiose e civili tra la Chiesa e il Governo. In base ai Patti la religione cattolica, apostolica, romana diveniva la sola religione dello Stato in Italia(art.1 del Trattato)e di conseguenza in tutte le scuole pubbliche italiane-eccetto le università-veniva esteso, introdotto ufficialmente e reso obbligatorio l’insegnamento della religione cattolica (con la riforma Gentile già presente alle elementari dal 1923):

“L’Italia considera fondamento e coronamento dell’istruzione pubblica l’insegnamento della dottrina cristiana secondo la forma della tradizione cattolica…Tale insegnamento sarà dato a mezzo di maestri e professori, sacerdoti o religiosi, approvati dall’autorità ecclesiastica e sussidiariamente a mezzo di maestri e professori laici, che siano a questo fine muniti di un certificato di idoneità  da rilasciarsi dall’Ordinario diocesano.”

art.36 del Concordato

Caduto il regime fascista e deposta la Monarchia, i Patti Lateranensi furono convalidati dall’Assemblea Costituente anche con il voto, non decisivo ma comunque significativo, del Partito Comunista Italiano e nel 1948 entrarono così a far parte integrante della Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana secondo quanto contenuto  nell’articolo settimo.

Il 18 febbraio 1984 il Capo del Governo italiano, Bettino Craxi, e il Segretario di Stato Vaticano, Cardinale Agostino Casaroli, siglarono a palazzo Madama l’Accordo di Revisione del Concordato nel quale, tra le altre cose, fu rimossa la clausola riguardante la religione di Stato(punto 1 del Protocollo addizionale)e l’insegnamento della religione cattolica, in virtù della sua delicata importanza, fu reso facoltativo(art.9).

Fino al 1977 l’11 febbraio-giorno della Conciliazione-era una festa nazionale, una giornata in cui, astenendosi dal lavoro e non andando a scuola, più compiutamente ci si poteva interrogare su come il Concordato avesse (Cardinale Schuster dixit)“ridato Dio all’Italia e l’Italia a Dio”.

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